Species of the Genus Buddleja

I won't repeat here all the excellent work on Wikipedia and suggest you follow the link for each species or the category link:

Comprehensive List of Buddleja Species on Wikipedia

There is more information about the genus on the Buddleja Page of Trees and Shrubs Online.

Organisation of Genus Buddleja

Kingdom: Plantae

Clade: Angiosperms

Clade: Eudicots

Clade: Asterids

Order: Lamiales

Family: Scrophulariaceae

Tribe: Buddlejeae

Genera included in this tribe:

Buddleja; Emorya; Gomphostigma.

The genera Polypremum (Tetrachondraceae) and Peltanthera (Peltantheraceae), historically considered as members of the tribe, are now known to be unrelated to Buddleja.

Molecular data (Chau et al 2017) suggests the genera Emorya and Gomphostigma are members of a monophyletic genus Buddleja, and therefore renamed Emorya suaveolans as Buddleja normaniae, and returned Gomphostigma virgatum to its original Linnean name of Buddleja virgata. The species correlate phylogenetically with their location, and they can be grouped by continent: Asia, Africa, and the Americas.


Buddleja species were divided into four sections by Leeuwenberg (1979):

SECTION: Buddleja: New World species distinguished by a valvate corolla e.g.: B. americana.

SECTION: Chilianthus: African species with anthers that protrude beyond the corolla e.g.: B. saligna.

SECTION: Neemda: the majority of species from all continents.

SECTION: Nicodemia: African species, mainly from Madagascar, distinguised by forming an indehiscent berry rather than a dry (dehiscent) seed capsule e.g.: B. madagascariensis.

Buddleja species organised by Continent

Asian species

Marquand (1930) divided the Old World Buddleja into four series: Alternifoliae, Curviflorae, Rectiflorae and Gynandrae; this last series was based only on a single atypical specimen of B. paniculata (syn. B. gynandra). Leeuwenberg (1979) did not maintain these series, as he believed the Asian species to be continuous. They are used here for convenience.

Series 1: Alternifoliae - alternate rather than opposite leaves. Diploid (2n=2x=38).

Buddleja alternifolia

Series 2: Curviflorae - curved corolla tube. Diploid (2n=2x=38).

Buddleja curviflora
Buddleja formosana (sunk under B. curviflora by Leeuwenberg).
Buddleja japonica
Buddleja lindleyana

Buddleja lindleyana showing the curved corolla tube

Series 3: Rectiflorae (incorporating Gynandrae) - straight corolla tube.
These species can be crudely divided by their ploidy level.

Diploid (2n=2x=38)

Buddleja asiatica
Buddleja bhutanica (ploidy inferred)
Buddleja brachystachya
Buddleja crispa

Species sunk under B. crispa by Leeuwenberg, often known by their old species name in horticulture:

Buddleja agathosma (ploidy inferred)
Buddleja caryopteridifolia (ploidy inferred)
Buddleja farreri
Buddleja sterniana
Buddleja tibetica (ploidy inferred)

See the Buddleja crispa Complex page for more details,

Buddleja microstachya (ploidy inferred)
Buddleja officinalis
Buddleja paniculata
Buddleja subcapitata (ploidy inferred)
Buddleja yunnanensis

Buddleja crispa

Tetraploid (2n=4x=76).

Buddleja candida
Buddleja davidii (includes all varieties)
Buddleja fallowiana
Buddleja myriantha

Hexaploid and dodecaploid (2n=6x=114 and 2n=12x=228).
Some B. nivea (notably var. yunannensis) and B. macrostachya specimens are dodecaploid, but it is not known whether this represents nascent speciation in isolated populations.

Buddleja albiflora
Buddleja delavayi (formerly B. heliophila)
Buddleja forrestii
Buddleja limitanea (sunk under B. forrestii by Leeuwenberg)
Buddleja macrostachya
Buddleja nivea
Buddleja stenostachya (sunk under B. nivea by Leeuwenberg)
Buddleja nivea var. yunnanensis (sunk under B. nivea by Leeuwenberg)

Variable high level polyploidy (2n=8x-24x=152-456).

Buddleja colvilei

Naturally Occuring Hybrids
These are frequently between plants of the same ploidy.

B. x alata = B. nivea x B. albiflora
B. x wardii = B. alternifolia x B. crispa
B. davidii x B .fallowiana
B. forrestii x B. macrostachya

Buddleja limitanea now sunk under B. forrestii

African species

Buddleja auriculata

Section: Nicodemia

Most are species formerly assigned to the genus Nicodemia.

Buddleja acuminata
Buddleja axillaris
Buddleja fusca
Buddleja cuspidata
Buddleja fragifera
Buddleja indica
Buddleja madagascariensis
Buddleja sphaerocalyx

Section: Chilianthus

Some authorities consider this section represents a separate genus (Chilianthus).

Buddleja dysophylla
Buddleja glomerata
Buddleja saligna

Genus: Gomphostigma

Gomphostigma virgatum = Buddleja virgata
Gomphostigma incomptum = Buddleja incompta

Buddleja glomerata

New World species

= North and South America

The Leeuwenberg (1979) sections: Buddleja and Neemda were combined by Norman (2000) and then divided into 12 series.
Genus Emorya included in Buddleja.

Buddleja speciosissima (Photo by M. Gloaguen, Arven Pépinières)

Buddleja anchoensis (Photo by Peter Podaras)

Buddleja coriacea (Photo by Noel Kingsbury)

Phylogeny of Buddleja

Approximate phylogeny of Buddleja within the order: Lamiales.
Buddleja and the related genera in the Buddleja tribe are members of the Scrophulariaceae, also known as the figwort family. The closest relatives within the family are Phygelius (cape fuchsia or cape figwort) and Verbascum (mulleins). Note that not all the Lamiale families are shown and that the tree is not to scale.



Chau, J., O'Leary, N., Weibang Sun, Olmstead, R. (2017). Phylogenetic relationships in tribe Buddlejeae (Scrophulariaceae) based on multiple nuclear and plastid markers. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 184. 137-166.

Gao Chen, Weibang Sun, Hang Sun. (2007) Ploidy variation in Buddleja L. (Buddlejaceae) in the Sino-Himalayan region and its bio-geographical implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154 pages 305-312.

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Netherlands.

Li, P. T. (1982) A study on the genus Buddleja L. of China. Acta Bot. Yunnanica 4 (3): 227-240.

Marquand C.V.B. (1930). Revision of the old world species of Buddleja. Kew Bulletin 1930: 177-208.

Moore, R.J. (1960). Cytotaxonomic notes on Buddleia. L. Am. J. Bot. 47:511-517.

Norman, E.M. (2000). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica 81. New York Botanical Garden, USA.




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