Species of the Genus Buddleja

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Comprehensive List of Buddleja Species on Wikipedia


Organisation of Buddleja

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Tribe:Buddlejeae

Genera included in this tribe:

Buddleja; Emorya;
Peltanthera; Gomphostigma
.

(Polyprenum moved to the Tetrachondraceae.)

Buddleja species were divided into four sections by Leeuwenberg (1979):

SECTION: Buddleja – New World species distinguished by a valvate corolla e.g.: B. americana.

SECTION: Chilianthus – African species with anthers that protrude beyond the corolla e.g.: B. saligna.

SECTION: Neemda – the majority of species from all continents.

SECTION: Nicodemia – African species, many from Madagascar, distinguised by forming a berry (indehiscent) rather than a dry (dehiscent) seed capsule e.g.: B. madagascariensis.


Buddleja species organised by Continent

Asian species

Section: Neemda subsection: Macrothyrsae

Marquand (1930) and Leeuwenberg (1979) divided these into four series but, rather unhelpfully, neither listed the species in the Rectiflorae and Gynandrae series, although the latter likely only contains B. paniculata (syn. B. gynandra). Li (1982) later amalgamated series Gynandrae (representive species: B. paniculata) into Rectiflorae as he considered both series continuous.

Series 1: Alternifoliae - alternate rather than opposite leaves. Diploid (2n=2x=38).

Buddleja alternifolia

Series 2: Curviflorae – curved corolla tube. Diploid (2n=2x=38).

Buddleja curviflora
Buddleja formosana (sunk under B. curviflora by Leeuwenberg).
Buddleja japonica
Buddleja lindleyana

Buddleja lindleyana showing the curved corolla tube

Series 3: Rectiflorae (incorporating Gynandrae) - straight corolla tube.
These species can be crudely divided by their ploidy level which is mostly in agreement with the taxonomy of Leeuwenberg.

Diploid (2n=2x=38)

Buddleja asiatica
Buddleja bhutanica (ploidy inferred)
Buddleja brachystachya
Buddleja crispa

Species sunk under B. crispa by Leeuwenberg but known by their old species name in horticulture:
  • Buddleja agathosma (ploidy inferred)
  • Buddleja caryopteridifolia (ploidy inferred)
  • Buddleja farreri
  • Buddleja sterniana
  • Buddleja tibetica (ploidy inferred)
  • Buddleja microstachya (ploidy inferred)
    Buddleja officinalis
    Buddleja paniculata
    Buddleja subcapitata (ploidy inferred)
    Buddleja yunnanensis

    Buddleja crispa

    Tetraploid (2n=4x=76).

    Buddleja candida
    Buddleja davidii (includes all varieties)
    Buddleja fallowiana
    Buddleja myriantha

    Hexaploid and dodecaploid (2n=6x=114 and 2n=12x=228).
    Some B. nivea (notably var. yunannensis) and B. macrostachya specimens are dodecaploid but it is not known whether this represents nascent speciation in isolated populations.

    Buddleja albiflora
    Buddleja delavayi (formerly B. heliophila)
    Buddleja forrestii
    Buddleja limitanea (sunk under B. forrestii by Leeuwenberg)
    Buddleja macrostachya
    Buddleja nivea
    Buddleja stenostachya (sunk under B. nivea by Leeuwenberg)
    Buddleja nivea var. yunnanensis (sunk under B. nivea by Leeuwenberg)

    Variable high level polyploidy (2n=8x-24x=152-456).

    Buddleja colvilei

    Naturally Occuring Hybrids
    These are frequently between plants of the same ploidy.

    B. x alata = B. nivea x B. albiflora
    B. x wardii = B. alternifolia x B. crispa
    B. davidii x B .fallowiana
    B. forrestii x B. macrostachya

    Buddleja limitanea now sunk under B. forrestii


    African species

    Section: Neemda

    Buddleja auriculata
    Buddleja loricata
    Buddleja polystachya
    Buddleja pulchella
    Buddleja salviifolia

    Buddleja auriculata

    Section: Nicodemia

    Most are species formerly assigned to the genus Nicodemia.

    Buddleja acuminata
    Buddleja axillaris
    Buddleja fusca
    Buddleja cuspidata
    Buddleja fragifera
    Buddleja indica
    Buddleja madagascariensis
    Buddleja sphaerocalyx

    Section: Chilianthus

    Some authorities consider this section represents a separate genus (Chilianthus).

    Buddleja dysophylla
    Buddleja glomerata
    Buddleja saligna

    Buddleja glomerata


    New World species

    = North and South America

    Sections: Buddleja and Neemda

    Sections combined by Norman (2000) and then divided into 12 series.

    Series 1: Thyrsoides

    Buddleja cuneata
    Buddleja elegans
    Buddleja kleinii
    Buddleja ramboi
    Buddleja thyrsoides

    Series 2: Oblongae

    Buddleja oblonga

    Series 3: Stachyoides

    Buddleja cestriflora
    Buddleja grandiflora
    Buddleja hatschbachii
    Buddleja longiflora
    Buddleja misionum
    Buddleja speciosissima
    Buddleja stachyoides
    Buddleja tubiflora

    Series 4: Globosae

    Buddleja araucana (formerly B. nappii)
    Buddleja aromatica
    Buddleja cordobensis
    Buddleja globosa

    Series 5: Anchoenses

    Buddleja anchoensis

    Buddleja speciosissima (Photo by M. Gloaguen, Arven Pépinières)

    Series 6: Glomeratae

    Buddleja chapalana
    Buddleja corrugata
    Buddleja marrubiifolia
    Buddleja mendozensis
    Buddleja suaveolens
    Buddleja tucamensis
    Buddleja utahensis

    Series 7: Brachiatae

    Buddleja brachiata
    Buddleja chenopodiifolia
    Buddleja diffusa
    Buddleja hieronymi
    Buddleja interrupta
    Buddleja iresinoides
    Buddleja racemosa

    Series 8: Lanatae
    Buddleja blattaria
    Buddleja lanata
    Buddleja jamesonii
    Buddleja polycephala

    Series 9: Scordiodes
    Buddleja perfoliata
    Buddleja scordioides

    Buddleja anchoensis (Photo by Peter Podaras)

    Series 10: Buddleja (= Leeuwenberg’s Section: Buddleja)
    Buddleja americana
    Buddleja crotonoides
    Buddleja domingensis

    Series 11: Verticillatae
    Buddleja sessiliflora
    Buddleja simplex

    Series 12: Cordatae

    Buddleja bullata
    Buddleja cardanesii
    Buddleja cordata
    Buddleja coriacea
    Buddleja euryphylla
    Buddleja ibarrensis
    Buddleja incana
    Buddleja lojensis
    Buddleja longifolia
    Buddleja megalocephala
    Buddleja montana
    Buddleja nitida
    Buddleja parviflora
    Buddleja pichinchensis
    Buddleja rufescens
    Buddleja skutchii
    Buddleja soratae
    Buddleja vexans

    Buddleja coriacea (Photo by Noel Kingsbury)

    Phylogeny of Buddleja

    Approximate phylogeny of Buddleja within the order: Lamiales.

    Buddleja and the related species in the Buddleja tribe are members of the Scrophulariaceae also known as the figwort family; the closest relatives within the family are Phygelius (cape fuchsia or cape figwort) and Verbascum (mulleins). Note that not all the Lamiale families are shown and that the tree is not to scale.

    References

    Gao Chen, Weibang Sun, Hang Sun. (2007) Ploidy variation in Buddleja L. (Buddlejaceae) in the Sino- Himalayan region and its bio-geographical implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154 pages 305–312.

    Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Netherlands.

    Li, P. T. 1982: A study on the genus Buddleja L. of China. — Acta Bot. Yunnanica 4 (3): 227–240.

    Marquand CVB. 1930. Revision of the old world species of Buddleja. Kew Bulletin 1930: 177–208.

    Moore, R. J. (1960). Cytotaxonomic notes on Buddleia. L. Am. J. Bot. 47:511-517.

    Norman, E. M. (2000). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica 81. New York Botanical Garden, USA.
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